For the construction of the shore protection wall a gabion cell is used, which is filled with rubble stone. As well, various kinds of materials with similar physical properties can be used to fill gabion cells.
Coastal Fortification by Gabion
These works are carried out according to following technology: at first, a special preparation of the underground water line is carried out, after which the “Reno mattresses” are laid, which are filled with stones. These mattresses are tied together underwater with a special wire, and in especially difficult cases in extreme conditions of operation – “mattresses” are additionally fixed to the ground with anchor piles for bigger stability of the structure. Subsequently, gabion boxes, which are wired between themselves and “Reno mattresses”, are folded onto such a construction, then they are filled with stones.
Coastal fortifications by Gabion are the best solution for reservoirs: with a flat bottom, shallow depths, strong winds, large wave loads, ice loads. They are also used to create fortification walls with height differences, to strengthen the soil, to create terraces on the site and as decorative elements in landscape design.
Coastal reinforcement with a geogrid
Coastal reinforcement with a geogrid: is usually used when it is impossible to use fortification with gabions due to uneven terrain. In this case, the best solution is to use fortification with a geogrid. This method allows to create invisible coastal fortification that are part of the natural landscape while preserving the existing forms of the coastline.
A geogrid is a structure made of plastic tapes 1,5 mm thick, which are interconnected by high strength welds and are arranged in a staggered manner. The geogrid is produced both in perforated and non-perforated form. At the same time, when using perforated walls, the drainage characteristics of the structure are improved, which ensures the growth of various kinds of vegetation.
Coastal strengthening with stones
Strengthening the coast with stones allows you to create curvilinear coastal fortifications that merge with the natural landscape. Granite stone of various shapes and colors is often used as a decorative element of the coastline. This method is usually used on relatively flat banks with a slope of up to 35 degrees. The essence of this method is as follows. At first the slope is prepared, both the underwater and surface part is being prepared.
In the underwater part of the slope a prism is formed that prevents the stones from sliding into the depths. After that, a layer of geotextile is laid on the prepared slope, which prevents the stone from sinking into the ground and slows the growth of vegetation. Stones are poured on an already fortified slope with the help of special equipment or manually if access is impossible.
Strengthening of monolithic reinforced concrete
Strengthening the shore with monolithic reinforced concrete is one of the shore reinforcement methods that can be used in various conditions. Due to the high-performance properties, this method can be used even in extreme conditions. This shore construction is performed in the following order.
Along the reinforced shoreline, reinforcement or pipe piles are installed in one row, then a trench is dug along the pile field, the reinforcement cage is connected, formwork is installed, and the whole structure is filled with hydraulic concrete (concrete that is not saturated with water). As a result, we get a structure that “stands” on piles with an approximate pitch of 1.5 m. It’s deepened by about 1.0 m, with a wall thickness of 0.4 m. All specified characteristics are not constant and are developed for each project separately.